An internet search for “questioning attitude” (include the quotes if you’re trying this at home) turns up article after article about this worker characteristic. It’s often stated to be a desirable trait in disciplines like nuclear power generation, construction management, and other industries where errors can be extremely costly, even deadly. You want people in those fields who are not satisfied that “everything looks OK” just because it seems so at first glance. This trait is also crucial in the social sciences, including my occupation, UX research.
When a researcher has a questioning attitude it doesn’t just mean “likes asking lots of questions”. Asking questions is fundamental to the job, but a questioning attitude is about being aware of the assumptions one makes and then testing whether those assumptions are true. If they aren’t true, then they get discarded. While designing those tests and interpreting the results one still needs to be constantly on the lookout for unfounded assumptions in a kind of recursive pattern all the way down, ensuring experimental design and the findings generated rest on solid bedrock of what has been established as true (as best as can be ascertained given the constraints).
A questioning attitude doesn’t stop being important just because the immediate risks seem low. Any technology built without a questioning attitude can have dramatic negative effects: an annoying Learning Management System can set people back in their careers; a frustrating payment workflow can cost a company millions of dollars; a facial recognition algorithm that’s relatively blind to people of certain races can cause those people to feel alienated or worse. These problems often happen because the designers of the technology work off of assumptions derived from what is familiar to them, and don’t consider that they might not be representative of their users.
If a questioning attitude means being aware of one’s own assumptions, how does one gain that awareness? Based on reading accounts of people who demonstrate a strong questioning attitude, talking to senior colleagues, and drawing from my own experience, I think this awareness can be cultivated from exposure to unusual and uncomfortable situations. Getting to closely know people who are very different from yourself, living in a far-away place that’s very unlike where you’ve spent most of your life, and learning and performing a wide variety of new skills are some of the ways to expose yourself to these situations.
Part of what this provides is the ability to switch into a “man from Mars” mentality, where you can see things afresh, without value judgment or preconceived notions (similar to what I learned from searching through a hot dumpster for a pair of lost keys). Critically, it also hones a rebellious instinct to look where nobody else around you is looking, to draw connections where nobody else is drawing them, etc. Not every place you look and not every connection you draw will be valid, but without this rebellious instinct important considerations are bound to be forgotten.
Humans naturally (by virtue of genetics and formative development) have different levels of self-awareness and rebelliousness, so to some extent the amount of “questioning attitude” present among UX researchers at a given company could have to do with which researchers that company hires. But I believe it is still a skill that can be maximized for each individual, and should be to produce the best design outcomes.