When I conduct research with users of internal enterprise systems, a significant portion of my interviews is spent learning about users’ roles, duties, and tasks. This information is critical to understanding the context in which users interact with their technology, and what their goals are when using it.
A few months ago I learned about a systematic process dedicated to uncovering and ordering this information. The process is called DACUM, an acronym for Developing a Curriculum. It exists to support training development, since trainers need to know what duties and tasks comprise the various roles within their organizations so they can develop training content for them, and also identify training gaps. I have been working closely with a training development team, and had the privilege of sitting in on a DACUM workshop. I hope to eventually become certified to moderate them myself.
Whereas interviews can take weeks to plan, administer, and analyze, a DACUM workshop takes two days and generates a concise and efficient set of artifacts listing all the duties and tasks for a given role. I have found that observing a DACUM workshop instills a reasonably confident level of understanding about the role discussed. I would otherwise not expect to attain that level of understanding without conducting and analyzing data from a dozen or more interviews.
A DACUM workshop operates somewhat like a focus group, with a panel of subject matter experts (SMEs) and a certified moderator walking them through a semi-structured discussion. The SMEs all share a particular role or job title in common but may (and ideally do) vary in years of experience, work location, and other factors. Through collaborative brainstorming and analysis between the moderator and the SMEs, the key duties of the SMEs’ role are listed and ordered, and then the same method is applied to the tasks that fall under each duty. Other items such as required tools and common acronyms are also listed. These then become the basis of a set of artifacts to which training development personnel can later refer.
Observing a DACUM workshop is beneficial to me as a UX researcher because it affords – in only two days – an in-depth look at a user role, and a strong basis from which to further investigate existing needs not only in learning and training but also in technology and other systems, potentially shaving weeks off my research effort. This means I can deliver findings and recommendations on tighter deadlines, and dedicate time to other research activities.
More information on DACUM can be found at http://www.dacumohiostate.com